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Past participle

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Past participle – причастие прошедшего времени
English verbs have five basic forms:

the base form
- s form
-ing form
past formand past participle form


Past participles for regular verbs are the same as theirpast forms

For example:

  • look-looked-looked
  • study-studied-studied

For irregular verbs, past and past participle forms may be different

For example:

  • take-took-taken
  • go-went-gone


The past participle is commonly used in 4 different cases:

Case 1

As a part of the present and past perfect tenses (both "regular" and continuous).
The non-continuous present perfect tense uses
has or have + the past participle
The present perfect continuous tense uses
has or have + been + - ing verb

For example:

  • He has taken a vacation. He has been taking a vacation.


Case 2

To make one of the past forms for the modal verbs.These forms use
a modal + have + the past participle

For example:

  • could have gone
  • may have been
  • should have known
  • might have seen, etc.


Case 3

As participial adjectives (verb forms used as adjectives).

For example:

  • We were bored / excited / interested.
  • We were bored with / excited about / interested inthe movie.


Case 4

Making the past form of infinitives
to + the base form

Examples:

  • to be - to have been
  • to live - to have lived
  • to go - to have gone
  • to have - to have had

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