grammar training
Numbers (ordinal, decimals, fractions, sums)

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Numbers (ordinal, decimals, fractions, sums)
Ordinal Numbers are numbers used for indicating order. They are formed by adding the -th suffix onto the cardinal number.

However, note that first (1st), second (2nd), third (3rd), and fifth (5th) are irregular. Also point out the slight spelling change in ninth (9th) and twelfth (12th).

1st – first*
2nd – second*
3rd – third*
4th – fourth
5th – fifth*
6th – sixth
7th – seventh
8th – eighth
9th – ninth*
10th – tenth
11th – eleventh
12th – twelfth*
13th – thirteenth
14th – fourteenth
15th – fifteenth
16th – sixteenth
17th – seventeenth
18th – eighteenth
19th – nineteenth

For multiples of ten, a final y changes to an ie and then the -eth suffix is added:
20th – twentieth
30th – thirtieth
40th – fortieth…

All other numbers above twenty follow the -th suffix rule in combination with the rules for the first nineteen numbers and the multiples of ten.

For example:
21st – twenty-first
100th – one hundredth
101st – one hundred and first
110th – one hundred and tenth


Decimals
0.X – tenth(s)
0.0X – hundredth(s)
0.00X – thousandth(s)
0.000X – ten thousandth(s)
0.0000X – hundred thousandth(s)
0.00000X – millionth(s)

All decimals follow the singular-plural system for nouns. In spoken English, we add –s to any decimal larger than one.
A period is placed between the whole number and the decimal.
For example:
0.1 – one tenth
0.2 – two tenths
0.01 – one hundredth, one one-hundredth
0.33 – thirty-three hundredths
0.001 – one thousandths, one one thousandth
0.654321 – six hundred fifty-four thousand three hundred twenty-one millionths

Decimals may also be spoken as whole number-point-digits.


Zeros are spoken as zero or oh.

For example:
0.1 – point one, zero point one, oh point one
1.25 – one point two five
6.425 – six point four two five
2.1368 two point one three six eight
1.057 – one point oh five seven
4.0098 – four point zero zero nine eight


Fractions

The numerator (the top number) is spoken as a cardinal number and the denominator (the bottom number) as an ordinal number. However, half is used in place of second and sometimes quarter in place of fourth.

For example:
1/2 – one-half
1/3 – one-third
2/3 – two-thirds
1/4 – one-fourth, one-quarter
4/5 – four-fifths
99/100 – ninety-nine one hundredths, ninety-nine hundredths

Fractions may also be spoken as cardinal number-over-cardinal number.
For example:
1/2 – one over two
1/3 – one over three
2/3 – two over three
1/4 – one over four
4/5 – four over five
99/100 – ninety-nine over one hundred


Sums

Addition is finding the total of different values.
The numbers which we add are called addends and the answer of an addition operation is called sum.
123 + 342 = 465
addend addend sum
Changing the order of addends does not change the sum.
46 + 17 = 63
17 + 46 = 63
Adding 0 to a number does not change the number.
142 + 0 = 142
0 + 176 = 176
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