grammar training
Irregular verbs

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Irregular verbs – неправильные глаголы
Irregular verb forms occur in Present Simple and Past Simple as well as past participles.

Remember that past participles are used in many verb forms including, Past Perfect, Future Perfect, passive forms and past conditional forms.

All verbs have a base form or 'infinitive'
  • for example, look, work, play.

And most of verbs, (the regular verbs), make past simple or past perfect using the same word ending, -ed.
  • for example, looked, worked, played.

There are, however, verbs that use different endings.
And these verbs are called irregular verbs.
They live by their own of rules.


We can divide these into four main types:

Type 1:
Verbs which have the same base form, past simple and past participle (all 3 forms the same)

Base Form - Simple Past - Past Participle
bet - bet - bet
cost - cost - cost
cut - cut - cut
hit - hit - hit
hurt - hurt - hurt
let - let - let
put - put - put
shut - shut - shut

Type 2:
Verbs which have the same past simple and past participle

Base Form - Simple Past - Past Participle\
lose - lost - lost
shoot - shot - shot
get - got - got
light- lit - lit
sit - sat - sat
keep - kept - kept
sleep - slept - slept
feel - felt - felt
leave - left - left
meet - met - met
bring - brought - brought
buy - bought - bought
fight - fought - fought
think - thought - thought
catch - caught - caught
teach - taught - taught
sell - sold - sold
tell - told - told
pay - paid - paid
make - made - made
stand - stood - stood
understand - understood - understood
lend - lent - lent
send - sent - sent
spend - spent - spent
build - built - built
find - found - found
have - had - had
hear - heard - heard
hold - held - held
read - read (pronounced red) - read (pronounced red)
say - said -said

Type 3:
Verbs which have the same base form and past participle

Base Form - Past Simple - Past Participle
come - came - come
become - became - become
run - ran - run

Type 4:
Verbs which have a different base form, past simple and past participle

Base Form - Simple Past - Past Participle
drive - drove - driven
ride - rode - ridden
rise - rose - risen
write - wrote - written
bite - bit - bitten
hide - hid - hidden
break - broke - broken
choose - chose - chosen
speak - spoke - spoken
wake - woke - woken
blow - blew - blown
grow - grew - grown
know - knew - known
fly - flew - flown
draw - drew - drawn
show - showed - shown
wear - wore - worn
tear - tore - torn
begin - began - begun
drink - drank - drunk
swim - swam - swum
ring - rang - rung
sing - sang - sung
eat - ate - eaten
fall - fell - fallen
forget - forgot - forgotten
give - gave - given
see - saw - seen
take - took - taken

You can make irregular verbs easier for yourself in the future by just learning them right from the beginning. Every time you learn a new verb, learn its tenses as well.

Memorize the 10 most common irregular verbs first

  1. Say, said, said
  2. Go, went, gone
  3. Come, came, come
  4. Know, knew, known
  5. Get, got, gotten
  6. Give, gave, given
  7. Become, became, become
  8. Find, found, found
  9. Think, thought, thought
  10. See, saw, seen
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